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Эволюция Need for Speed

Эволюция Need for Speed. Неутолимая жажда скорости

Ни одна другая гоночная серия не сравнится с Need for Speed обилием и разнообразием эпизодов. На сегодняшний день под знаменитым брендом в свет вышло более полутора десятков проектов. Миллионы проданных копий, толпы преданных и капризных поклонников, пятнадцать лет эволюции со взлетами и падениями – все это в нашем кратком экскурсе в историю серии.

Methods

Data were collected focusing on the herbivore community of African savannahs and their five main predators (Sinclair et al. 2003 ; Owen‐Smith and Mills 2008a ). Vulnerability of each herbivore species to each of the predators was compiled from Hayward and Kerley ( 2005 ), Hayward ( 2006 ), and Hayward et al. ( 2006a , b , c ). Vulnerability to predators was measured by the average Jacobs’ index where r is the proportion of the total kills at a site made up by a species and p is the proportional availability of the prey species (Jacobs 1974 ). Data on maximum running speed were obtained from Christiansen ( 2002 ) for the mammalian herbivores and from Scott ( 1997 ) for the ostrich Struthio camelus. Maximum running speed was used as a general measure of mobility, because insufficient interspecific data prevented acceleration and endurance from being considered explicitly (McNeill Alexander 2006 ). Body mass, measured as the mean of male and female averages, was obtained from Estes ( 1991 ) and Scott ( 1997 ). The proportion of monocotyledons in the diet was obtained from Gagnon and Chew ( 2000 ), Lamprey ( 1963 ), and Milton et al. ( 1994 ). The final data set included all the species for which data were available on all variables (Fig. 1) and is given in Table S1.

ANALYSIS

The comparative method with phylogenetic control was used to identify predictors of running speed (Harvey and Pagel 1991 ). The phylogeny used was constructed by extending the ruminant supertree in Fernández and Vrba ( 2005 ) with the nonruminant species based on Meredith et al. ( 2011 ). Analyses were performed in R (R Development team 2012 ) with the packages caper (Orme et al. 2012 ) and ape (Paradis et al. 2004 ) loaded. Control for phylogenetic interdependence employed the phylogenetic generalized least squares method (Freckleton et al. 2002 ). Branch lengths were weighted by maximum likelihood estimates of λ rather than δ or κ because of lower scores for the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) (Pagel 1999 ).

Need for Speed 2

После триумфальной первой части вышедший в 1997 году сиквел разочаровал многих поклонников. Разработчики сохранили живописные трассы и достойную подборку машин в комплекте с видеороликами и панорамными фотоснимками интерьера, но почему-то убрали из игры полицейских. Кроме того, EA Canada сделала шаг в сторону от реализма, что тоже понравилось далеко не всем. Ситуацию не исправил даже выход специального издания Need for Speed 2: Special Edition в том же 1997 году. Оно расширило набор автомобилей и трасс, добавило поддержку технологии 3D-акселерации 3dfx Glide, но копов в игру не вернуло.

Methods

Data were collected focusing on the herbivore community of African savannahs and their five main predators (Sinclair et al. 2003 ; Owen‐Smith and Mills 2008a ). Vulnerability of each herbivore species to each of the predators was compiled from Hayward and Kerley ( 2005 ), Hayward ( 2006 ), and Hayward et al. ( 2006a , b , c ). Vulnerability to predators was measured by the average Jacobs’ index where r is the proportion of the total kills at a site made up by a species and p is the proportional availability of the prey species (Jacobs 1974 ). Data on maximum running speed were obtained from Christiansen ( 2002 ) for the mammalian herbivores and from Scott ( 1997 ) for the ostrich Struthio camelus. Maximum running speed was used as a general measure of mobility, because insufficient interspecific data prevented acceleration and endurance from being considered explicitly (McNeill Alexander 2006 ). Body mass, measured as the mean of male and female averages, was obtained from Estes ( 1991 ) and Scott ( 1997 ). The proportion of monocotyledons in the diet was obtained from Gagnon and Chew ( 2000 ), Lamprey ( 1963 ), and Milton et al. ( 1994 ). The final data set included all the species for which data were available on all variables (Fig. 1) and is given in Table S1.

Читать еще:  Новости - Need for Speed: Underground 2

ANALYSIS

The comparative method with phylogenetic control was used to identify predictors of running speed (Harvey and Pagel 1991 ). The phylogeny used was constructed by extending the ruminant supertree in Fernández and Vrba ( 2005 ) with the nonruminant species based on Meredith et al. ( 2011 ). Analyses were performed in R (R Development team 2012 ) with the packages caper (Orme et al. 2012 ) and ape (Paradis et al. 2004 ) loaded. Control for phylogenetic interdependence employed the phylogenetic generalized least squares method (Freckleton et al. 2002 ). Branch lengths were weighted by maximum likelihood estimates of λ rather than δ or κ because of lower scores for the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) (Pagel 1999 ).

Need for Speed: High Stakes

Появившаяся в 1999 году Need for Speed: High Stakes, оправдывая свой подзаголовок («Высокие ставки»), добавила в серию азарта. Полицию и режим Hot Pursuit авторы предусмотрительно сохранили, так что возможность поиграть в кошки-мышки с копами осталась. Но кроме него они добавили полноценный турнир с финансовой системой. Одерживая победы, игрок зарабатывал деньги, необходимые для покупки и совершенствования машин. Самой же удачной находкой авторов стали заезды, в которых победитель забирал автомобиль побежденного – права на ошибку в них не было, и страсти накалялись добела. Хуже всего приходилось домочадцам, которые имели неосторожность чем-то отвлечь игрока во время ответственной гонки.

Methods

Data were collected focusing on the herbivore community of African savannahs and their five main predators (Sinclair et al. 2003 ; Owen‐Smith and Mills 2008a ). Vulnerability of each herbivore species to each of the predators was compiled from Hayward and Kerley ( 2005 ), Hayward ( 2006 ), and Hayward et al. ( 2006a , b , c ). Vulnerability to predators was measured by the average Jacobs’ index where r is the proportion of the total kills at a site made up by a species and p is the proportional availability of the prey species (Jacobs 1974 ). Data on maximum running speed were obtained from Christiansen ( 2002 ) for the mammalian herbivores and from Scott ( 1997 ) for the ostrich Struthio camelus. Maximum running speed was used as a general measure of mobility, because insufficient interspecific data prevented acceleration and endurance from being considered explicitly (McNeill Alexander 2006 ). Body mass, measured as the mean of male and female averages, was obtained from Estes ( 1991 ) and Scott ( 1997 ). The proportion of monocotyledons in the diet was obtained from Gagnon and Chew ( 2000 ), Lamprey ( 1963 ), and Milton et al. ( 1994 ). The final data set included all the species for which data were available on all variables (Fig. 1) and is given in Table S1.

Читать еще:  Бонусные машины из серии Need for Speed

ANALYSIS

The comparative method with phylogenetic control was used to identify predictors of running speed (Harvey and Pagel 1991 ). The phylogeny used was constructed by extending the ruminant supertree in Fernández and Vrba ( 2005 ) with the nonruminant species based on Meredith et al. ( 2011 ). Analyses were performed in R (R Development team 2012 ) with the packages caper (Orme et al. 2012 ) and ape (Paradis et al. 2004 ) loaded. Control for phylogenetic interdependence employed the phylogenetic generalized least squares method (Freckleton et al. 2002 ). Branch lengths were weighted by maximum likelihood estimates of λ rather than δ or κ because of lower scores for the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) (Pagel 1999 ).

Need for Speed: Motor City

Многопользовательский онлайновый проект Need for Speed: Motor City, запущенный в 2001 году и более известный под именем Motor City Online, стал первой попыткой Electronic Arts вывести свою серию в Сеть. Конечно, мультиплеер был и в других эпизодах, но Motor City посвящался коллективным гонкам целиком. По задумке авторов игроки должны были приобретать и «прокачивать» машины (преимущественно американские мускулкары 30-70-х гг. XX столетия) и соревноваться на них в гонках друг с другом. У MMORPG разработчики заимствовали идею повышения уровней и «живой» экономики, но как следует все это так и не заработало. Камнем преткновения стала техническая реализация заездов – из-за лагов управлять машинами на большой скорости оказалось более чем проблематично. Отсутствие грамотного подогреваемого интереса к проекту тоже сыграло свою роль, и в августе 2003 года «Город моторов» заглох навсегда.

Methods

Data were collected focusing on the herbivore community of African savannahs and their five main predators (Sinclair et al. 2003 ; Owen‐Smith and Mills 2008a ). Vulnerability of each herbivore species to each of the predators was compiled from Hayward and Kerley ( 2005 ), Hayward ( 2006 ), and Hayward et al. ( 2006a , b , c ). Vulnerability to predators was measured by the average Jacobs’ index where r is the proportion of the total kills at a site made up by a species and p is the proportional availability of the prey species (Jacobs 1974 ). Data on maximum running speed were obtained from Christiansen ( 2002 ) for the mammalian herbivores and from Scott ( 1997 ) for the ostrich Struthio camelus. Maximum running speed was used as a general measure of mobility, because insufficient interspecific data prevented acceleration and endurance from being considered explicitly (McNeill Alexander 2006 ). Body mass, measured as the mean of male and female averages, was obtained from Estes ( 1991 ) and Scott ( 1997 ). The proportion of monocotyledons in the diet was obtained from Gagnon and Chew ( 2000 ), Lamprey ( 1963 ), and Milton et al. ( 1994 ). The final data set included all the species for which data were available on all variables (Fig. 1) and is given in Table S1.

ANALYSIS

The comparative method with phylogenetic control was used to identify predictors of running speed (Harvey and Pagel 1991 ). The phylogeny used was constructed by extending the ruminant supertree in Fernández and Vrba ( 2005 ) with the nonruminant species based on Meredith et al. ( 2011 ). Analyses were performed in R (R Development team 2012 ) with the packages caper (Orme et al. 2012 ) and ape (Paradis et al. 2004 ) loaded. Control for phylogenetic interdependence employed the phylogenetic generalized least squares method (Freckleton et al. 2002 ). Branch lengths were weighted by maximum likelihood estimates of λ rather than δ or κ because of lower scores for the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) (Pagel 1999 ).

Читать еще:  Купить игру Need for Speed: Heat

Настоящее

(PC, PlayStation 2, Xbox, GameCube, Game Boy Advance)

Дебют Need for Speed: Underground в 2003 году ознаменовал тотальную «перезагрузку» серии. Авторы отринули весь предыдущий опыт и взялись за популяризованную кинематографом тематику нелегальных уличных гонок. Underground – это стремительные заезды по ночным городским улицам на сверкающих неоном и хромом «заряженных» спорткарах. Именно в этом эпизоде впервые появляется мощная система тюнинга, позволяющая менять как внешний вид, так и характеристики машин – возможные комбинации декоративных элементов исчисляются здесь миллионами. Кроме того, в Underground появился пусть примитивный, но все же сюжет – история о водителе, прокладывающем себе путь к вершине теневого гоночного олимпа. А вот полиция исчезла…

Methods

Data were collected focusing on the herbivore community of African savannahs and their five main predators (Sinclair et al. 2003 ; Owen‐Smith and Mills 2008a ). Vulnerability of each herbivore species to each of the predators was compiled from Hayward and Kerley ( 2005 ), Hayward ( 2006 ), and Hayward et al. ( 2006a , b , c ). Vulnerability to predators was measured by the average Jacobs’ index where r is the proportion of the total kills at a site made up by a species and p is the proportional availability of the prey species (Jacobs 1974 ). Data on maximum running speed were obtained from Christiansen ( 2002 ) for the mammalian herbivores and from Scott ( 1997 ) for the ostrich Struthio camelus. Maximum running speed was used as a general measure of mobility, because insufficient interspecific data prevented acceleration and endurance from being considered explicitly (McNeill Alexander 2006 ). Body mass, measured as the mean of male and female averages, was obtained from Estes ( 1991 ) and Scott ( 1997 ). The proportion of monocotyledons in the diet was obtained from Gagnon and Chew ( 2000 ), Lamprey ( 1963 ), and Milton et al. ( 1994 ). The final data set included all the species for which data were available on all variables (Fig. 1) and is given in Table S1.

ANALYSIS

The comparative method with phylogenetic control was used to identify predictors of running speed (Harvey and Pagel 1991 ). The phylogeny used was constructed by extending the ruminant supertree in Fernández and Vrba ( 2005 ) with the nonruminant species based on Meredith et al. ( 2011 ). Analyses were performed in R (R Development team 2012 ) with the packages caper (Orme et al. 2012 ) and ape (Paradis et al. 2004 ) loaded. Control for phylogenetic interdependence employed the phylogenetic generalized least squares method (Freckleton et al. 2002 ). Branch lengths were weighted by maximum likelihood estimates of λ rather than δ or κ because of lower scores for the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) (Pagel 1999 ).

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